Behind the Scenes
Living during a pandemic has refocused our interest in sustainability and increased our thinking about what is required for a healthy life and a healthy planet. Like many we thinking more about where things come from and how they are made. It is often difficult to see the whole supply chain, the conditions for workers and end of life disposal and we want to be as transparent as possible in our business.
‘Sustainable furniture making’ might mean as little as using wood – a renewable resource – however it has to be much broader and deeper than that. We find Kate Raworth’s model of Doughnut Economics helpful for thinking about sustainability. Her model has two rings and looks like a doughnut. The inner ring represents the basic needs of people to keep them healthy and happy including housing, work, education, healthcare, community, air, water and energy. The outer ring represents the need of the planet to remain in balance, and human demand must not exceed certain limits, to prevent damage to atmosphere, oceans, soil, bio-diversity and natural resources. There is a sweet spot between the two rings where people have what they need without damaging the earth. At the moment there are many people who do not have enough to meet their basic needs and we are damaging the planet by over-consumption of limited resources and generating too much pollutants and waste.
As a micro-business we are thinking about what we can do to thrive in the sweet spot in the short, medium and long-term. At a basic level we transform local hardwoods into treasured furniture but it can be useful to analyse the steps.
We are lucky to have a small team of dedicated people who derive job satisfaction from making museum quality furniture. Individual makers are responsible for whole projects where possible (for better job satisfaction and learning) and frequent discussion about the best way to do things leads to highly skilled makers and efficiency, helping to make our furniture as affordable as possible. We have annual occupational health checks and improve the working environment through investing in the best machinery. Normally we offer paid internships and apprenticeships but sadly this is on hold during Covid-19.
We source some oak from our collectively owned, local bluebell wood (above) and we fell and mill as part of a sustainable woodland management plan designed to increase bio-diversity and the overall health of the woodland. We also use Perthshire grown oak, ash and cherry which are felled and milled on a micro-scale by other tree surgeons and saw-millers. The process is skilled and time-consuming but having a continuing local supply of timber has been helpful during the pandemic.
Recently we were offered two large oak trees (being felled as concerns that they were old enough to drop limbs and block a crucial access). These trees are too big for us to manage alone. They were prepared and felled by a tree surgeon (below left), then split by Pol Bergius from Black Dog Timber , who will return with his wood miser and Angus to mill into planks. The wood will then air-dry in stick (for minimum of a year per inch thick).
It has really helped our furniture making to be very close to the felling and milling. It has stimulated experimentation and Angus can work with the miller to prepare the tree as efficiently as possible for our unique combination of furniture making processes. It has also reduced transport miles, supports local businesses, and helps celebrate our local timber and woodland.
We are licensees of the Scottish Working Woods Label.
The Scottish Working Woods Label benefits both the environment and the local communities in the following ways:
“The label supports local growing, harvesting, processing and production which in turn mitigates climate change and supports local economy and employment.
The label endorses the value of local biodiversity, character and identity in the woodland resource.
The ‘chain of custody’ from raw material to finished product brings producers, customers and communities into a meaningful relationship with each other and with Scottish woodlands.
The label supports and promotes the value of traditions in the areas of woodland management, craftsmanship and use of resources, encouraging the development and retention of the associated skills.”
We specialise in steam-bending which allows us to use air-dried oak and ash. Steaming for an hour requires less energy than the more usual kiln drying for weeks or months. Bending with steam means we can achieve interesting curves and shapes with minimal waste.
We use harvested rain water for steam bending.
We use traditional cabinetmaking or green wood-work techniques for jointing, rather than faster screws, as we believe it is ‘better’: it will be longer lasting and is more beautiful. We have also developed innovative ways to simplify jointing and we harness the inherent strength in woods long fibres.
Most of our work is bespoke and therefore our making process is always evolving. There are frequent discussions about the best way at all stages including selecting, machining, joint work, construction and finishing and we are proud that we have been selected four times for The Wood Awards best new bespoke furniture design.
Although we hope our furniture will be treasured for decades (even centuries) it can be repaired, up-cycled or recycled in the medium to long term, and at the very end of life it could be burnt or bio-degraded. This fits with notion of a “circular economy” – keep a resource in use as long as possible and think about disposal from the outset rather than a “linear economy” – make, short life span of use, and no responsibility for disposal.
We are always happy to assist in the unlikely event that our furniture needs to be repaired and we provide advice on care and maintenance.
Wood waste is recycled or burnt for fuel.
Our furniture is finished with natural oils. This is easy to repair and refinish and is not damaging to human health or the environment.
We are trying to minimise the use of plastic in the workshop and we are improving our packaging so that smaller furniture can be sent in totally bio-degradable packaging.
We have recently switched to Bulb – a 100% renewable electricity supplier.
We are delighted to bring you news of a wonderful collaboration between the Red Lichties Stitching Group, artist Andrew Crummy and ourselves to celebrate the 700th anniversary of the Declaration of Arbroath on 6th April 2020. There should have been a grand opening weekend celebrating the anniversary in Arbroath Abbey and the town but due to Corona virus we are celebrating virtually instead.
Red Lichties is an affectionate name for people from Arbroath due to a prominent red light in the harbour used by fishermen to guide them home. In 2017 the Red Lichties Stitching Group decided to make an embroidered tapestry to celebrate the Declaration of Arbroath in 2020. It tells the story of the Declaration with an extraordinary level of craft skill, time and dedication. When the stitchers started they did not know where the finished tapestry would be housed but they hoped it might tour, to celebrate Arbroath and bring the story of the Declaration to life.
Most of the group had already worked on a panel for the Great Tapestry of Scotland. This exceptional public art project is comprised of 160 embroidered cloth panels depicting the history of Scotland from pre-historic times to the present day. It was completed in 2013. Andrew Crummy designed the art-work for each panel illustrating the story by author Alexander McCall Smith and historian Alistair Moffat.
The Red Lichties felt that the Declaration of Arbroath, the most important document in Scottish history dated 6th April 1320 had not been properly represented. In 2017 they began work on the new embroidered tapestry, with a deadline of the 700th anniversary of the Declaration. The first step was to commission Andrew Crummy to design a panel. Andrew researched the story, with Linda Walker (Red Lichties Group Co-ordinator) and local historian Norman Atkinson. His black line drawing was then transferred onto a Jacobean linen twill panel in pencil. Samples of stitching materials, colours and techniques began, and Andrew encouraged the stitchers to respond as artists adding details, textures and interpretation. The nine stitchers met every third Tuesday in a local village hall for almost three years taking turns to work on the tapestry at home. Christine Riley, who could no longer sew but had been trained in the London School of Embroidery, came for one early visit, then stayed for the duration sharing her knowledge and encouraging the stitchers to develop their practise. An extremely high level of embroidery has been achieved using silks, crewel wools, gold threads, kid gold and silver, felt and floss.
The Red Lichties Stitching Group are
Ann Marie Bray, Patricia Beaton , Rena Freeburn, Janette Nairn, Christine Riley (tutor), Alice Sim, Jessy Smart, Mary Stephen, Linda Walker (group co-ordinator), Margaret Wynne
and the age range is 76 – 93.
The Tapestry gives us a glimpse into the breadth and details of medieval life in Arbroath with: the Benedictine Abbey of Arbroath with Round O, medicinal plants and Abbot Bernard; fishing and sea-faring, fish-wives and Arbroath Smokies; the leper colony at Hospitalfield; Pope John XXII, King Robert the Bruce; the wax seals of the earls and barons to ‘sign’ the declaration; knights in chain-mail and tradesmen.
Our involvement with the stitchers formally began in March 2018 with a meeting between Linda Walker (the group’s co-ordinator), Andrew Crummy (the designer and an old friend of ours) and ourselves. From that initial meeting we began to think about the tapestry as potentially a triptych to allow it to fold for safe storage and movement. This meant adding two more panels and dramatically increased the amount stitching to be done! The understanding that one of the few certain things about the Declaration of Arbroath is that it left Arbroath on a boat destined for the Pope in France, led to a design based around a medieval sailing boat.
Angus presented his concept model in May 2018 at Arbroath Abbey This was for a free-standing design – human scale with a sweeping arc representing the prow of a boat – supporting the three sails – the tapestry triptych. We also had our first visit to meet the stitchers and see the tapestry in progress. Andrew then had to create two new designs, before the stitchers could get started on the two new panels. By March 2019 – all three designs were under-way. After a total of 2806 voluntary stitching hours the panels were completed in December 2019.
In November 2019 it was decided that the tapestry would have a permanent home in the visitor centre at Arbroath Abbey and be taken into the permanent collection of Historic Environment Scotland (HES). The tapestry was formally handed over to HES at an event in the Scottish Parliament at the end of January 2020. It is an astounding testament to the quality of this tapestry that this contemporary craft object has been taken into the care of the public body caring for and promoting Scotland’s historic environment. The intention now is to preserve the tapestry for the next 700 years. A permanent home in the abbey meant that the tapestry no longer needed to be free standing as it probably will not tour and the place designated for the tapestry meant that the design for the cabinet with a dynamic sweeping prow was no longer appropriate. A re-design with a focus on materials began.
Ross Irving from Historic Environment Scotland brought the tapestry to the workshop (the week before we closed for quarantine) for the final fitting of the case. The tapestry has now gone into storage with HES and the frame will stay with us until they can be re-united at Arbroath Abbey.
Local historian Norman Atkinson told us about a very old tree, associated with Robert the Bruce, that might be a source of timber. This was the Bruce Oak or Strathleven House Oak photographed and written about by Archie Miles in The British Oak, published by Constable, 2013 and on the cover of Heritage Trees of Scotland by Rodger, Stokes and Ogilvie published by The Tree Council in 2003. When Archie Miles photographed the tree in 2003 it had a girth of 29 feet, was estimated it to be at least 600 – 800 years old and was considered to be the oldest oak tree in Scotland. It was growing near Strathleven House, north west of Glasgow. This estate had previously been the site of a manor house built by Robert the Bruce for his son David (who became King David II). As Robert the Bruce was known for tree planting it is conceivable that he knew this tree. Local children playing inside the huge hollow tree in 2004, accidentally set it on fire leading to its collapse. The wood was salvaged by a local group called the Strathleven Artizans and we were delighted when they gifted us a burr from the magnificent tree to incorporate into the Triptych Frame.
This ancient burr oak is a beautiful rich highly figured dark wood and has been carved into a boat like shape for the base of the triptych. It also forms the finials and lock spacers.
The cabinet door knobs are turned apple wood to remember the Oslin apple – an ancient variety still associated with Arbroath, and introduced into the abbey gardens by French monks.
The interior of the cabinet and tapestry triptych is Scottish oak which compliments the tapestry but the exterior of the cabinet (and reverse of the side panels) is made in Scottish sycamore. This modest, plain, pale wood is suggestive of sailcloth and provides a total contrast to the jewel like interior.
The Declaration of Arbroath was written at an important and turbulent time for Scotland. It was after a succession crisis and during the Wars of Independence (between Scotland and England). John Balliol had been crowned King but was defeated by the English and expected to pay homage to King Edward I of England. Robert the Bruce then seized the throne (in 1306 after murdering another rival in a church) but was excommunicated by the pope and not recognised by King Edward I and many in Scotland. After years of guerrilla warfare and political campaigning Robert the Bruce had outstanding success at the Battle of Bannockburn (1314) when he defeated a huge English army. (This event is still celebrated today in the unofficial Scottish national anthem – Flower of Scotland.)
The declaration is a letter dated 6th April 1320 which was sent by the people of Scotland to the Pope asking him to recognise two important things: that Robert the Bruce be recognised as the chosen and legitimate King, and that Scotland be recognised as an independent nation from England.
It is the most famous document in Scottish History, important in the development of a Scottish national identity, and seen by some as the origin of democracy as it was signed by nobles representing the people of Scotland and they were choosing a king based on valour rather than birthright.
The most famous extract from the Declaration is ….
As long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours, that we are fighting, but for freedom – for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself.’
Even now many people in Scotland can feel some connection to one of the nobles, or clan chiefs, through place and family. One of the nobles who signed the declaration was William, the Earl of Ross. There has recently been an attempt by genealogical researchers to trace male heirs of the nobles who signed the declaration. We cannot be certain (as there is a missing birth certificate around 1765) but “it is very likely that Angus Ross is a direct male line descendant of William, Earl of Ross, via the Rosses of Pitcalnie, but further research would be required to confirm a connection.” Graham Holton, Genealogical Studies Postgraduate Programme, University of Strathclyde.
Researching the Earl of Ross we found that initially he paid homage to King Edward I (along with all the earls), then he supported John Balliol as King, he betrayed Bruce’s wife and sister who ended up in the Tower of London and his land was ransacked by Robert the Bruce soon after Bruce became king. However by 1320, he supported King Robert I (the Bruce) and the truce was cemented through marriage when his son married Robert’s sister.
In 1328 a treaty recognises Scotlands independence and Robert the Bruce as king. In 1329 King Robert dies and his son is too young to rule. This is followed by the Second Wars of Independence until 1357 when Scotland becomes independent and remains so until The Treaty of the Union in 1707.
To see a film by independent TV director-broadcaster Charlie Stuart featuring Lesley Riddoch, Brian Cox, the Red Lichties and our workshop, explaining the wider significance of the declaration please visit
UK Crafts Council Maker of the Month, September 2019
Angus was interviewed by Frannie Glass and in her article she describes his journey to become a leading designer maker.
Here are some extracts:
Angus’s practice consists of three fundamental pillars: design, craftsmanship and wood.
From industrial pharmaceutical design to a cabinet making course to working directly from a sustainable, co-owned Scottish woodland, these pillars developed alongside his career while nurturing his value system along the way.
….. Angus had taken a sabbatical and gone to Kenya to help build schools in the outback: “I’d got a slight realisation about how little you need to live on…. When I came back, I always had in the back of my mind – we’re generating this huge volume of plastic and where is it going? I started to think, this isn’t really what I want to do… I want to develop my own work that will be, in a lot of ways, more sustainable. And that’s when I started looking at wood”.
…. “A lot of the trees … are around 100-120 years old, while the root systems underneath are probably about 200-300 years old”. … “gnarled and old, coming out at different angles, pippy and knotty”
Now Angus embraces the eccentricities of wood that he may well have rejected in the early years of his practice: “I want to make it work,” he says, and he most certainly does.
Read the full article Angus Ross on Skill, Sustainability and Steam-bending on the Crafts Council website here.
Stunning portrait by Angus Blackburn for Scottish Field Magazine, The Luxury Issue on sale during September. It was great to see photographer Angus have a unique approach and compose one fabulous shot in the spray booth.
Our workshop is open until Sunday 15th September for Perthshire Open Studios.
Woodland and Workshop Open Day on 25th May
Our workshop in Aberfeldy will be open 10am – 4pm and a tour of Old Castle Wood will start at our workshop at 10.30 am.
The tour will last around two hours and will include at least one hour of walking. Angus will talk about using trees for fine furniture making: selecting, felling and milling and we will discuss managing a small woodland for bio-diversity and sustainability and improving access for the public.
This is a chance to walk in a lovely mixed native woodland with an under-storey of wild flowers. At some point there is always a wonderful carpet of bluebells. They have started early this year so hopefully the bluebells will still be good on the 25th!
Please contact us to book a place on the tour. Places are strictly limited.
Old Castle Wood is a beautiful mixed ancient woodland a few miles downstream from our workshop and we are actively involved in sustainably managing the woodland for timber, improved bio-diversity and to control non-native plants. Very selective felling happens in the winter and supplies us with our unique characterful oak.
You can read more about why we selectively fell these veteran trees, on our blog here.
Our studio-workshop is in Aberfeldy, Perthshire on the banks of the River Tay in the centre of Scotland. The workshop will be open 10am – 5pm for a rare chance to talk to our craftsmen/cabinetmakers. Do pop in if you can. There is no need to book to visit the workshop. I understand this is all too far away for many readers, and if so please contact us to arrange a visit at a time to suit you.
Country Living magazine, May 2019
Last year we had a wonderful photographer, Nato Welton, visit our bluebell wood during bluebell time. In Scotland this is usually late May/early June so it is a long time since his visit, and bluebell time still feels a long way off. However if you would like bluebells, workshops and country living please read the article by Kate Langrish in the magazine – on sale now.
Many thanks to photographer Nato Welton and Country Living for allowing us to share the images.
Please note that we are not “open at weekends” as stated in the article, but only by appointment.
We will be having a Workshop and Woodland Open Day on the 25th May. The workshop will be open to all, but the numbers for the woodland tour will be limited. I will set up an Eventbrite booking system soon, but do please email if you would like to reserve a place.
Old Castle Wood is a few miles downstream from the workshop and co-operatively owned by five families. We get together for work days and holidays, and lightly manage the wood to improve timber, bio-diversity and access for others. The wood is open to those who walk, cycle or paddle in.
To read the article please click the link below.
Our furniture is always designed by Angus Ross however we made an exception recently when we were commissioned by the Willow Tearooms Trust to make all the tables and chairs for one tearoom in the newly restored original Willow Tearoom on Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow. This building has international importance as the first building where Charles Rennie Mackintosh (along with his wife Margaret Macdonald ) designed all of the exterior and interior including furniture, lighting, tableware and gesso panels. The Willow Tearooms Trust have overseen the meticulous restoration of the building back to it’s condition at opening in 1903. It will fully re-open as “Mackintosh at the Willlow” along with a new visitors centre next door in September. There will be various booked events and limited opening through the summer.
We specialise in steam bending and this allowed us to invisibly strengthen the Ladderback chairs. Of the original 125 only a handful survive as the back rails were cut from solid wood, this way of making the curved shape is vulnerable to breaking. (Cheaper reproductions of ladder back chairs have straight back rails.) We cut the rails from solid and then steam-bent the rails to create the curve. Steam-bending means working with the grain, keeping the wood fibres intact, and manually pushing the intact fibres to slide over each other, when boiling hot and malleable, and therefore to take up the curved shape. Once dry this is a very strong component.
Images below show Steven working on the 3250 mortice and tenon joints on the chair backs (125 chairs x 13 ladder back rails x 2 sides) The ladder back tenons were hand trimmed with a Japanese saw.
Usually when making chairs with a drop-in seat, the chair would be made first and the drop-in seat made to fit second. In this heritage project the seats were to made like the originals with hand twisted rush – a very labour intensive process taking a day per seat. Therefore the seat bases were made first and sent out to a rush specialist (Tony Handley) and to two local artisans (Istvan and Karla) so that they had sufficient time to make 125.
Mike then made the chair fronts. All of these chairs had to be millimetre perfect to fit the rush seat bases.